DROP TENSIOMETERS & INTERFACIAL RHEOMETERS

A complete range of Instruments for Surface & Interfacial Tension Study

Tensiometers are used in research, development and quality control to study the properties of interfaces between immiscible fluids. Our range of automated drop tensiometers TRACKER™ helps you characterize, easily and precisely surfaces & interfaces properties. Measurements provide valuable data, saving time and money in formulating products.

Measurement methods

Surface or Interfacial Tension measurement at Liquid/Gas or Liquid/Liquid interface.

Interfacial Rheology measures the evolution of surface or interfacial tension on a drop / bubble whose volume varies in sinusoidal cycles.

Contact Angle measurement at Liquid/solid interface. The measurement determines the wettability of the solid and the deduction of the surface energy of the solid.

Dynamic contact angle: measures advancing and receding contact angle by variation of the volume of the drop.

Image Analysis Software Technology

The software uses algorithms to analyze the drop profile and fits it to models based on the Young-Laplace equation in order to determine surface tension, interfacial tension or contact angle.

The software controls the variations in volume or area of the drop in both frequency and amplitude. Then it makes possible to study the rheological properties of the interfaces.

The automated regulation by the Software guarantees precise and reproducible measurements. Up to 60 frames per second can be recorded. The software calculates the measurements in real time.

A Complete range of Measurements

2 different configurations:

  • Rising Drop/Bubble: when the density of the fluid inside the drop is higher than the one inside the cuvette.

  • Pendant Drop/Bubble: when the density of the fluid inside the drop is lower than the one inside the cuvette.

Characteristics measured

  • Surface tension (liquid/gas)

  • Interfacial tension (liquid/liquid)

  • Contact angle (liquid/solid)

  • Dynamic contact angle

  • Interfacial rheology - Viscoelastic modulus

  • Coefficient of rigidity

  • CMC

For Lots of Applications...

Crude oil: emulsion stability for separation, influence of surfactants for oil recovery, dynamic contact angle between crude oil/rock/liquid phases.

Cosmetics: emulsion stability, physical-chemical formulation, dynamic contact angle between container/emulsion.

Food: stability of emulsion before getting frozen (ice cream), influence of proteins, sugar or alcohol impact on the bubbles' size.

Bitumen: wettability, emulsion properties at different temperatures, dynamic contact angle.

Fuel formulation: characterization of the coalescence of an emulsion, wettability.

Lubricant: contact angle between lubricant/material, influence of surfactants on the wettability

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Applications

  • Surfactant characterization

  • Efficiency/Effectiveness of the surfactants

    • Kinetic​s

    • Capacity to adsorb/absorb

    • Capacity to decrease the surface tension

    • Quantity of surfactant to saturate the surface

  • Surfactant behavior on the surface

  • Wettability of the surface

  • Properties of biological surfactants (protein, lipids ...)

  • Competition of surfactants

The interfacial tension between liquid-liquid or liquid-gas can be calculated from the study of image analysis: shape of a drop.

Raw digital images of the video card can be analysed and displayed to determine surface tension, interfacial tension or contact angle.

Image analysis is done by fitting the Laplace equation. Images can also be acquired and stored at a rate of 60 per second.

The software controls the motor of the syringe in order to produce drops at a predetermined volume.

It also allows to control the volume variation of the drop (sinusoidal variation, in steps or in crenulations), the frequencies and the amplitudes are imposed by the user to determine the viscoelastic modulus, and its real and imaginary components.

Options

  • Automatic Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC)

  • High frequency (10Hz)

  • Exchange phase

  • Pressure cell up to 200 bar / 200°C

Measurements

  • Surface/Interfacial tension

  • Contact angle (static/dynamic)

  • Surface dilatational rheometer (Viscoelastic modulus)

  • Surface elasticity

  • Surface viscosity

Tracker™ Automatic Drop Tensiometer

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Applications

  • Same applications as the single drop

  • Characterize behavior of adsorbed molecules faster

  • Save time determining reproducibility

  • Partitioning of surface components

  • Surfactant solubility

  • Coalescence time for emulsion and foam stability

  • Phospholipid bi-layer studies

  • Surface or interfacial tension of the bridge

  • Liquid inside the bridge can be exchanged

Two Drops simultaneously

  • Pendant drops or rising drops can be studied

  • Surface or interfacial tension of each drop

  • Surface or interfacial rheology for each drop

  • Oscillation frequency of each drop can be varied independently

One drop without an Apex

  • Interfacial tension can be determined, even when the drop is partially soluble

Two Drops without an Apex

  • Interfacial tension for the two drops in contact

  • User controls change of each drop's volume

Drop Bridge without an Apex

  • Surface or interfacial tension of the bridge

  • Liquid inside the bridge can be exchanged

Tracker™ Automatic Two Drop Tensiometer

TRACKER™ HTHP has been designed to characterize surface properties, measure superficial or interfacial tensions,contact angle and study interfacial rheology for most demanding applications.

TRACKER™ HTHP can measure under a temperature up to 200°C and a pressure up to 700 bar. High pressure cell’s design has been certified by CETIM (Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques - www.cetim.fr)

The instrument is available in 3 versions: 200°C and 350 or 500 or 700 bar. TRACKER™ HTHP measures:

  • Liquid/Liquid, Liquid/Gas, Liquid/Solid interfaces tensions

  • Rising or pendant drop

  • Nonexplosive gas and Supercritical CO₂

  • Drop volume/Area regulation

  • viscoelastic modulus

  • Contact angle (advancing and receding)

Applications

  • Same applications as the single drop tensiometer

  • Supercritical CO₂

  • Petroleum, bitumen experiments

  • Smelt polymer

  • Contact angle under pressure

  • Compatible with methane

Tracker™HTHP - high temperature and pressure  Up to 200°C / 700 bar