DROP TENSIOMETERS & INTERFACIAL RHEOMETERS

A complete range of Instruments for Surface & Interfacial Tension Study

Tensiometers are used in research, development and quality control for the study of interface science. The TRACKER™ range of instruments will help you characterize surfaces & interfaces properties, easily and precisely, saving valuable time and money, in products formulation.

Measurement methods

Pending / Rising drop: measures surface and interfacial tension by axisymmetric drop shape analysis, drop area and volume regulation

Oscillating drop: measures surface & interfacial dilational rheology by using drop volume variation and viscoelastic modulus

Sessile drop: measures contact angle, wettability and surface energy. High speed measurement (up to 200 pictures per second)

Dynamic contact angle: measures advancing and receding contact angle by drop volume variation

Software Technology

Raw digital images taken by the camera are analyzed and displayed to determine surface tension, interfacial tension, or contact angle. Image analysis is accomplished by fitting the Laplace equation to the drop. Up to 60 images per second can be acquired and stored to produce short videos.

Software allows results obtained to be used to control the syringe automatically to produce drops of a predetermined volume or area. The software controlled syringe can also vary drop volume or area. Frequency or amplitude of this variation can also be set to obtain viscoelastic modulus and its real and imaginary components.

A Complete range of Measurements

Characteristics measured

  • Surface tension (liquid/gas)

  • Interfacial tension (liquid/liquid)

  • Contact angle (liquid/solid)

  • Dynamic contact angle

  • Interfacial rheology - Viscoelastic modulus

    • Surface elasticity

    • Surface viscosity

  • Coefficient of rigidity

  • CMC

For Lots of Applications...

Crude oil: emulsion stability for separation, influence of surfactants for oil recovery, dynamic contact angle between crude oil/rock/liquid phases.

Cosmetics: emulsion stability, physical-chemical formulation, dynamic contact angle between container/emulsion.

Food: stability of emulsion before getting frozen (ice cream), influence of proteins, sugar or alcohol impact on the bubbles' size.

Bitumen: wettability, emulsion properties at different temperatures, dynamic contact angle.

Fuel formulation: characterization of the coalescence of an emulsion, wettability.

Lubricant: contact angle between lubricant/material, influence of surfactants on the wettability

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Applications

  • Surfactant characterization

  • Efficiency/Effectiveness of the surfactants

    • Kinetic​s

    • Capacity to adsorb/absorb

    • Capacity to decrease the surface tension

    • Quantity of surfactant to saturate the surface

  • Surfactant behavior on the surface

  • Wettability of the surface

  • Properties of biological surfactants (protein, lipids ...)

  • Competition of surfactants

The interfacial tension between liquid-liquid or liquid-gas can be calculated from the study of image analysis: shape of a drop.

Raw digital images of the video card can be analysed and displayed to determine surface tension, interfacial tension or contact angle.

Image analysis is done by fitting the Laplace equation. Images can also be acquired and stored at a rate of 60 per second.

The software controls the motor of the syringe in order to produce drops at a predetermined volume.

It also allows to control the volume variation of the drop (sinusoidal variation, in steps or in crenulations), the frequencies and the amplitudes are imposed by the user to determine the viscoelastic modulus, and its real and imaginary components.

Options

  • Automatic Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC)

  • High frequency (10Hz)

  • Exchange phase

  • Pressure cell up to 200 bar, 200°C

Measurements

  • Surface/Interfacial tension

  • Contact angle (static/dynamic)

  • Surface dilatational rheometer (Viscoelastic modulus)

  • Surface elasticity

  • Surface viscosity

Tracker™ Automatic Drop Tensiometer

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Applications

  • Same applications as the single drop

  • Characterize behavior of adsorbed molecules faster

  • Save time determining reproducibility

  • Partitioning of surface components

  • Surfactant solubility

  • Coalescence time for emulsion and foam stability

  • Phospholipid bi-layer studies

  • Surface or interfacial tension of the bridge

  • Liquid inside the bridge can be exchanged

Two Drops simultaneously

  • Pendant drops or rising drops can be studied

  • Surface or interfacial tension of each drop

  • Surface or interfacial rheology for each drop

  • Oscillation frequency of each drop can be varied independently

One drop without an Apex

  • Interfacial tension can be determined, even when the drop is partially soluble

Two Drops without an Apex

  • Interfacial tension for the two drops in contact

  • User controls change of each drop's volume

Drop Bridge without an Apex

  • Surface or interfacial tension of the bridge

  • Liquid inside the bridge can be exchanged

Tracker™ Automatic Two Drop Tensiometer

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Applications

  • Same applications as the single drop tensiometer

  • Supercritical CO2

  • Petroleum, bitumen experiments

  • Smelt polymer

  • Contact angle under pressure

  • Compatible with methane

The tensiometer Tracker HTHP allows real time determination of dynamic interfacial (superficial) tension and viscoelastic modulus on liquid/liquid or liquid/gas environments. It can also determine dynamic contact angle of a liquid on a solid. All these measurements can be performed at a temperature up to 200°C and a pressure up to 500 bar.


Interfacial tension is determined by performing a digital analysis of a droplet profile. The drop is filled in with the 1st fluid and is formed in a measurement cuvette containing the 2nd medium. The principle is the same for determining liquid/solid contact angle.


The drop is illuminated by a uniform light source. An optical lens generates an image of the drop's profile on a CCD camera. This profile is analyzed by the software. The interfacial tension is then determined by the Laplace equation.


Measurements are displayed in real time. Values ​​of interfacial tension, drop volume and drop area are calculated in real time. 

Tracker™HTHP - high temperature and pressure  Up to 200°C 500 bar